It has been suggested that Valence effect be the bulletproof diet pdf free download into this article. Optimism bias is quite common and transcends gender, race, nationality and age.
Four factors exist that cause a person to be optimistically biased: their desired end state, their cognitive mechanisms, the information they have about themselves versus others, and overall mood. The optimistic bias is seen in a number of situations.
For example: people believing that they are less at risk of being a crime victim, smokers believing that they are less likely to contract lung cancer or disease than other smokers, first-time bungee jumpers believing that they are less at risk of an injury than other jumpers, or traders who think they are less exposed to losses in the markets. Although the optimism bias occurs for both positive events, such as believing oneself to be more financially successful than others, and negative events, such as being less likely to have a drinking problem, there is more research and evidence suggesting that the bias is stronger for negative events. Different consequences result from these two types of events: positive events often lead to feelings of well being and self-esteem, while negative events lead to consequences involving more risk, such as engaging in risky behaviors and not taking precautionary measures for safety.
Problems can occur when trying to measure absolute risk because it is extremely difficult to determine the actual risk statistic for a person. Therefore, the optimistic bias is primarily measured in comparative risk forms, where people compare themselves against others, through direct and indirect comparisons. Direct comparisons ask whether an individual’s own risk of experiencing an event is less than, greater than, or equal to someone else’s risk, while indirect comparisons ask individuals to provide separate estimates of their own risk of experiencing an event and other’s risk of experiencing the same event.