This section contains free e-books and physics of light and optics pdf on Optics, some of the resources in this section can be viewed online and some of them can be downloaded. Refraction of Light, Perception of Light and Polarisation of Light. Wave optics and Rules of randomness. Interaction of Radiation and Matter: Quantum Theory.
This article is about the field of science. Not to be confused with Physical science. One of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, the main goal of physics is to understand how the universe behaves.
Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines, perhaps the oldest through its inclusion of astronomy. Over the last two millennia, physics was a part of natural philosophy along with chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, the natural sciences emerged as unique research programs in their own right.
Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms of other sciences while opening new avenues of research in areas such as mathematics and philosophy.
Physics also makes significant contributions through advances in new technologies that arise from theoretical breakthroughs. Ancient Egyptian astronomy is evident in monuments like the ceiling of Senemut’s tomb from the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt.
Astronomy is the oldest of the natural sciences. The earliest civilizations dating back to beyond 3000 BCE, such as the Sumerians, ancient Egyptians, and the Indus Valley Civilization, all had a predictive knowledge and a basic understanding of the motions of the Sun, Moon, and stars. The stars and planets were often a target of worship, believed to represent their gods. While the explanations for these phenomena were often unscientific and lacking in evidence, these early observations laid the foundation for later astronomy.
According to Asger Aaboe, the origins of Western astronomy can be found in Mesopotamia, and all Western efforts in the exact sciences are descended from late Babylonian astronomy. Greek astronomers provided names, which are still used today, for most constellations visible from the northern hemisphere.