Mechanism of action of antidiabetic drugs pdf

No significant difference exists in the occurrence of hypoglycemia between placebo and sitagliptin. In those mechanism of action of antidiabetic drugs pdf sulphonylureas, the risk of low blood sugar is increased.


The existence of rare case reports of renal failure and hypersensitivity reactions is noted in the United States prescribing information, but a causative role for sitagliptin has not been established. DPP-4 inhibitors, and the U. One study with lab rats published in 2009 concluded that some of the possible risks of pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer may be reduced when it is used with metformin. However, while DPP-4 inhibitors showed an increase in such risk factors, as of 2009, no increase in pancreatic cancer has been reported in individuals taking DPP-4 inhibitors.

Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is generally not possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. In 2015, FDA added a new Warning and Precaution about the risk of “severe and disabling” joint pain to the labels of all DPP-4 Inhibitor medicines. In addition to sitagliptin, other DPP-4 inhibitors such as saxagliptin, linagliptin, and alogliptin must also carry the new FDA Warning and Precaution label.

This enzyme breaks down the incretins GLP-1 and GIP, gastrointestinal hormones released in response to a meal. By preventing GLP-1 and GIP inactivation, they are able to increase the secretion of insulin and suppress the release of glucagon by the alpha cells of the pancreas.

This drives blood glucose levels towards normal. Sitagliptin has been shown to lower HbA1c level by about 0. It is slightly less effective than metformin when used as a monotherapy. It does not cause weight gain and has less hypoglycemia compared to sulfonylureas.

Sitagliptin was approved by the U. On April 2, 2007, the FDA approved an oral combination of sitagliptin and metformin marketed in the US as Janumet. On October 7, 2011, the FDA approved an oral combination of sitagliptin and simvastatin marketed in the US as Juvisync. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of sitagliptin, an inhibitor of dipeptidyl peptidase IV, in healthy subjects: results from two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies with single oral doses”.

Sitagliptin for Type 2 Diabetes”. Addition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors to sulphonylureas and risk of hypoglycaemia: systematic review and meta-analysis”.