Macro and micro climate pdf

Political risk is a type of risk faced by investors, corporations, and governments that political decisions, events, or conditions will significantly macro and micro climate pdf the profitability of a business actor or the expected value of a given economic action. Political risk can be understood and managed with reasoned foresight and investment. The term political risk has had many different meanings over time. Broadly speaking, however, political risk refers to the complications businesses and governments may face as a result of what are commonly referred to as political decisions—or “any political change that alters the expected outcome and value of a given economic action by changing the probability of achieving business objectives”.

Portfolio investors may face similar financial losses. Moreover, governments may face complications in their ability to execute diplomatic, military or other initiatives as a result of political risk. A low level of political risk in a given country does not necessarily correspond to a high degree of political freedom.

Indeed, some of the more stable states are also the most authoritarian. Long-term assessments of political risk must account for the danger that a politically oppressive environment is only stable as long as top-down control is maintained and citizens prevented from a free exchange of ideas and goods with the outside world.