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Stagecraft is the technical aspect of theatrical, film, and video production. Stagecraft is distinct from the wider umbrella term of scenography. Considered a technical rather than an artistic field, it is primarily the practical implementation of a scenic designer’s artistic vision.
Regional theatres and larger community theatres will generally have a technical director and a complement of designers, each of whom has a direct hand in their respective designs. Within significantly larger productions, for example a modern Broadway show, effectively bringing a show to opening night requires the work of skilled carpenters, painters, electricians, stagehands, stitchers, wigmakers, and the like. Modern stagecraft is highly technical and specialized: it comprises many sub-disciplines and a vast trove of history and tradition. Greeks were the earliest recorded practitioners of stagecraft.
Skene” is Greek, translating roughly into “scene” or “scenery”, and refers to a large scenic house, about one story tall, with three doors. On the audience-side of the Skene, what are now known as “flats” could be hung. Flats developed to two-sided painted flats which would be mounted, centered, on a rotating pin, with rope running around each consecutive pin, so the flats could be turned for a scene-change. Over 20 such scenic inventions can be traced back to the Greeks.
Plays of Medieval times were held in different places such as the streets of towns and cities, performed by traveling, secular troupes. Some were also held in monasteries, performed by church-controlled groups, often portraying religious scenes.