Data networks by bertsekas and gallager pdf download

This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. In the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking, the physical layer or layer 1 is the first and data networks by bertsekas and gallager pdf download layer.

This layer may be implemented by a PHY chip. The physical layer consists of the electronic circuit transmission technologies of a network.

It is a fundamental layer underlying the higher level functions in a network. Due to the plethora of available hardware technologies with widely varying characteristics, this is perhaps the most complex layer in the OSI architecture.